Elevations, in California, range from the lowest to the highest in the contiguous 48 states (Death Valley to Mt. Whitney). Nevertheless, a major portion of the state's landmass is in an intermediate elevation between about 1000 feet and about 5000 feet. These areas are found commonly along the Coastal Mountains (interior side), the Klamath Mountains (northwest), the Southern Coastal Ranges and Transverse Range, and, of course, the western slopes of the Cascades and the Sierras. Summer heat is not as extreme in the foothill regions and most areas continue to receive some moisture, well into the summer, through creeks and springs. While most of these regions continue to burn dry in the summer so that the basic ground cover is also annual grasses, the foothill slopes offer a better habitat for many species of oak and firs or pines. As well as offering several important food sources to humans, these trees provide a unique habitat to birds and other animals. There are also many species of shrubs and, in the foothills, many shrubs provide fruits --- e.g., black berry, tolon berry, and gooseberry. Larger animals (deer, elk, bear, and mountain lion) inhabit the foothills.

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